Nature, 13 Bibcode : JChEd..
Crane , D. Miller and I. In: Membrane Transport and Metabolism.
Proceedings of a Symposium held in Prague, August 22—27, Edited by A. Kleinzeller and A.
Czech Academy of Sciences , Prague, , pp. Crane in was the first to formulate the cotransport concept to explain active transport . This hypothesis was rapidly tested, refined and extended [to] encompass the active transport of a diverse range of molecules and ions into virtually every cell type. Experimental Physiology.
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Archived from the original on The key point here was 'flux coupling', the cotransport of sodium and glucose in the apical membrane of the small intestinal epithelial cell. Half a century later this idea has turned into one of the most studied of all transporter proteins SGLT1 , the sodium—glucose cotransporter. Bibcode : Natur. Sydor A, Brown RY ed. Orexin neurons are regulated by peripheral mediators that carry information about energy balance, including glucose, leptin, and ghrelin.
Accordingly, orexin plays a role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, reward, and perhaps more generally in emotion. The regulation of energy balance involves the exquisite coordination of food intake and energy expenditure.
Experiments in the s and s showed that lesions of the lateral hypothalamus LH reduced food intake; hence, the normal role of this brain area is to stimulate feeding and decrease energy utilization. In contrast, lesions of the medial hypothalamus, especially the ventromedial nucleus VMH but also the PVN and dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus DMH , increased food intake; hence, the normal role of these regions is to suppress feeding and increase energy utilization.
Yet discovery of the complex networks of neuropeptides and other neurotransmitters acting within the hypothalamus and other brain regions to regulate food intake and energy expenditure began in earnest in with the cloning of the leptin ob, for obesity gene. Indeed, there is now explosive interest in basic feeding mechanisms given the epidemic proportions of obesity in our society, and the increased toll of the eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia.
Unfortunately, despite dramatic advances in the basic neurobiology of feeding, our understanding of the etiology of these conditions and our ability to intervene clinically remain limited.
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